NEET 2021 Syllabus by NTA
एनईटी द्वारा एनईईटी 2021 सिलेबस: नवीनतम एनईईटी 2021 सिलेबस (सेक्शन-वार) और परीक्षा पैटर्न यहां उपलब्ध है। आप इस सिलेबस को पीडीएफ फॉर्मेट में भी डाउनलोड कर सकते हैं। NEET 2021 सिलेबस (पीडीएफ) डाउनलोड करने का लिंक इस लेख के अंत में दिया गया है। यहां हमने NEET 2021 की तैयारी के लिए खंडवार महत्वपूर्ण पुस्तकों का विवरण भी दिया है.
|Subject||Number of Questions||Marks||Types of Questions||Duration|
|Physics||45||180||Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) with four options and single correct answer/best option||02:00 P.M. to 05:00 P.M.|
|Biology (Zoology & Botany)||90||360|
|Total||180 Questions||720 Marks||3 Hours|
NEET 2021 Section-wise Syllabus: Physics
|Physics syllabus of class 11th||Physics syllabus of Class 12th|
|Sr. No.||Topics||Sr. No.||Topics|
|1||Physical world and measurement||1||Electrostatics|
|3||Laws of Motion||3||Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism|
|4||Work, Energy and Power||4||Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents|
|5||Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body||5||Electromagnetic Waves|
|7||Properties of Bulk Matter||7||Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation|
|8||Thermodynamics||8||Atoms and Nuclei|
|9||Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory||9||Electronic Devices|
|10||Oscillations and Waves|
Class 11 Subject Course: Physics
UNIT I: Physical world and measurement
Physics: space and excitation; The nature of physical laws; Physics, Technology, and Society.
Asure Measurement Requirements: Units of Measurement; System of units; SI units, basic and derivative units. Length, mass, and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; Measurement error; Important numbers.
Imen dimension, dimensional analysis, and use of physical quantity.
UNIT II: Kinematics
The reference frame of reference, movement in a straight line; Status-time figure, speed, and motion. Same and unequal motion, average speed, and current speed. Same speed motion, motion-time, and position-time diagrams for the same fast motion (graphic therapy).
Movement The basic concepts of difference and integration to describe movement. Scaler and vector quantity: position and displacement vector, common vector, common vector and notation, vector similarity, multiplication of vectors by a real number; Adding and subtracting veins. Relative motion.
Unit vectors. Resolution of vectors in rectangular components of a plane.
Scalar and vector products of Ala vector. Movement in a plane. Cases of homogeneous motion and uniform acceleration – projectile motion. Same circular motion.
Unit III: Legal Proposals
Am a seamless power concept. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; Another law of motion and Newton’s velocity; Pulse; Newton’s third law of motion. The law of conservation of linear motion and its applications.
Sim Simultaneous balance of forces. Static and motion friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, ub.
Circ the same circular movement dynamics. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicles on flat county roads, vehicles on cascades)
Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power
Constant working with constant and variable force; Kinetic energy, labor energy release rate, force.
Understanding the potential energy potential, the potential energy potential of the spring, the potential energy; Protection of mechanical energy energy (speed and potential energy energy); Not conscious violence; And also mobility in a circle, elastic and fair collisions in one and two dimensions.
Unit V: The speed of a system of particles and rigid bodies
V Center of gravity, conservation of velocity and mass movement of a two-particle system. The center of gravity of the rigid body; Center of gravity of the same pole.
Force with a few examples of force, testicles, angular motion, angular momentum protection a moment.
Id rigid body, rigid body rotation and rotation speed, equation comparing linear and rotational movement; The moment of inertia, the radius of knowledge. Values. For simple geometric objects (no derivatives). Description of the theorem and their application of parallel and vert axes.
UNIT VI: Gravity
Planet Kepler The laws of motion of the planets. The universal law of gravity. Variation with acceleration and height and gravity by gravity.
Potential gravitational energy release; Gravity potential. The speed of the satellite, the speed of the orbit.
Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Solids
La elastic behavior, stress-strain relationship. Hook’s law, elastic modulus, volume modulus, shear,
Hardness modulus, poison ratio; Elastic.
• Viscosity, low stocks, terminal momentum, Reynolds number, streamlined and turbulent flow. Delicate
Wedge, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
Apply surface tension considerations to surface tension and surface tension, contact angle, excess pressure, drops, bubbles, and capillary growth.
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Fantastic expansion typical heat capacity: CP, CV calorimetry; Change of state – latent heat.
Transfer Heat transfer – thermal conduction and conductivity, convection, and radiation. Qualitative consideration
Black body radiation, the law of vein displacement, and the greenhouse effect.
• Newton’s law Cndu and Stephen’s law.
Unit VIII: Thermodynamics
Ther Definition of Thermal Equilibrium and Temperature (Zero Laws of Thermodynamics). Warmth, function, and inner energy. The first law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
Ther Another law of thermodynamics: reversible and reversible processes. Heat engine and refrigerator.
UNIT IX: Behavior of Perfect Gas and Kinetics Theory
Gas The equation of a perfect gas state, the work of compressing a gas.
Theory of motion of gases: Assumptions, the concept of pressure. Kinetics and temperature; Degree of independence, application of energy diffusion laws (testimony only) and specific heat of gases; Realize the meaning of the freeway.
UNIT X: Vibrations and Waves
I’d periodic motion shift as duration, frequency, time function. Periodic work. Simple harmonic motion (SHM) and its equations; Phase; Vibration of spring return force and constant force; Energy in SHM.
NEET 2021 Section-wise Syllabus: Chemistry
|Chemistry syllabus of class 11th||Chemistry syllabus of class 12th|
|Sr. No||Topics||Sr. No.||Topics|
|1||Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry||1||Solid State|
|2||Structure of Atom||2||Solutions|
|3||Classification of Elements and Periodicity inProperties||3||Electrochemistry|
|4||Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure||4||Chemical Kinetics|
|5||States of Matter: Gases and Liquids||5||Surface Chemistry|
|6||Thermodynamics||6||General Principles and Processes ofIsolation of Elements|
|7||Equilibrium||7||p- Block Elements|
|8||Redox Reactions||8||d and f Block Elements|
|10||s-Block Element (Alkali and Alkaline earthmetals)||10||Haloalkanes and Haloarenes|
|11||Some p-Block Elements||11||Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers|
|12||Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principlesand Techniques||12||Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids|
|13||Hydrocarbons||13||Organic Compounds ContainingNitrogen|
|16||Chemistry in Everyday Life|
CHEMISTRY: CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
• General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
• Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
• Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
UNIT II: Structure of Atom
• Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely
UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
• Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electrone gativity, valence.
UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
• Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.
UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
• Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
• Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
UNIT VI: Thermodynamics
• First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
• Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.
• Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.
UNIT VII: Equilibrium
• Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium- Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)., buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions
• Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.
UNIT IX: Hydrogen
• ccurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation,
reactions, uses and structure;
UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
• Group I and group 2 elements:
• General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
• Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
• Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
• Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements
• General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
• Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
• General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.
• Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.
UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
• General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and
IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
• Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
• Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions;
electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons
• Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
• Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
• Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
• Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution-Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry
• Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
CHEMISTRY: CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Solid State
• Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
UNIT II: Solutions
• Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.
UNIT III: Electrochemistry
• Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics
• Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
UNIT V: Surface Chemistry
• Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
UNIT VII: p- Block Elements
• Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
• Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
• Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
• Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements
• General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
• Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
• Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds
• Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).
UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
• Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
• Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
• Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
• Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.
UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
• Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
• Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
• Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
• Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
UNIT XIV: Biomolecules
• Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
• Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
• Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).
• Vitamins- Classification and function.
• Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
UNIT XV: Polymers
• Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
• Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
• Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
NEET 2021 Section-wise Syllabus: Biology
|Biology syllabus of class 11th||Biology syllabus of class 12th|
|Sr. No.||Topics||Sr. No||Topics|
|1||Diversity in Living World||1||Reproduction|
|2||Structural Organisation in Animals andPlants||2||Genetics and Evolution|
|3||Cell Structure and Function||3||Biology and Human Welfare|
|4||Plant Physiology||4||Biotechnology and Its Applications|
|5||Human physiology||5||Ecology and environment|
BIOLOGY: CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Diversity in Living World
• What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
• Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
• Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
• Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
• Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
• Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function
• Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
• Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
• B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
UNIT IV: Plant Physiology
• Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
• Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
• Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place;
pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
• Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
• Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
UNIT V: Human Physiology
• Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
• Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
• Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
• Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
• Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.• Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humanscentral nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
• Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system- Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
(Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)
BIOLOGY: CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Reproduction
• Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
• Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
• Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
• Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution
• Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex-linked inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
• Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.
• Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare
• Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis.
Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV, and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
• Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single-cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
• Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation, and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications
• Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
• Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
UNIT V: Ecology and environment
• Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
• Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services- Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
• Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
• Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues